Women's Health, Studies, and Feminist Ethics

Sex Work: Europe

Return to Main Menu  

 

European Centre for Sex Work Research and Policy[1]

Index

 

Case law

Organisations

Protocols

Research and cross country comparisons

Migration and Trafficking

 

Council of Europe

European Union

 

Central and Eastern Europe

Bulgaria

Czech Republic

Hungary

Moldova

Poland

Russia

Ukraine

 

Northern Europe

Ireland

United Kingdom

Scandinavia and Nordic Council Countries

Baltic States

 

Western Europe

Austria

Belgium

France

Germany

Netherlands

Switzerland

 

Southern Europe

Italy

Portugal

Spain

Macedonia

 

Western Asia

Turkey

 

 


European Protocols

 

European Community Treaty (1957)

RIGHT OF ESTABLISHMENT

Article 43

Within the framework of the provisions set out below, restrictions on the freedom of establishment of nationals of a Member State in the territory of another Member State shall be prohibited. Such prohibition shall also apply to restrictions on the setting-up of agencies, branches or subsidiaries by nationals of any Member State established in the territory of any Member State.

Freedom of establishment shall include the right to take up and pursue activities as self-employed persons and to set up and manage undertakings, in particular companies or firms within the meaning of the second paragraph of Article 48, under the conditions laid down for its own nationals by the law of the country where such establishment is effected, subject to the provisions of the chapter relating to capital.

SERVICES

Article 49

Within the framework of the provisions set out below, restrictions on freedom to provide services within the Community shall be prohibited in respect of nationals of Member States who are established in a State of the Community other than that of the person for whom the services are intended.

The Council may, acting by a qualified majority on a proposal from the Commission, extend the provisions of the Chapter to nationals of a third country who provide services and who are established within the Community.

 

EU Charter of Fundamental Rights 2000 (pdf)

Article 15

Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work

 

1. Everyone has the right to engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted occupation.

2. Every citizen of the Union has the freedom to seek employment, to work, to exercise the right of establishment and to provide services in any Member State.

3. Nationals of third countries who are authorised to work in the territories of the Member States are entitled to working conditions equivalent to those of citizens of the Union.

 

 

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights 2003 (pdf)

Article 8 . Right to respect for private and family life

 

1.              Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.

 

2.              There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

 


 

Case Law

 

European Court of Human Rights

Niemietz v. Germany Dec 16 1992. 16 Eur Hum Rts Rep 97 [1993]

1.                                      The Court does not consider it possible or necessary to attempt an exhaustive definition of the notion of "private life". However, it would be too restrictive to limit the notion to an "inner circle" in which the individual may live his own personal life as he chooses and to exclude therefrom entirely the outside world not encompassed within that circle.  Respect for private life must also comprise to a certain degree the right to establish and develop relationships with other human beings.

 

European Court of Justice

C-268/99 Jany and Others (20 November 2001) 2002/C 3/11 (pdf)

(details)

4.              The activity of prostitution pursued in a self-employed capacity can be regarded as a service provided for remuneration and is therefore covered by both those expressions

 

5.              …that prostitution is an economic activity pursued by a self-employed person as referred to in those provisions, where it is established that it is being carried on by the person providing the service:

 

outside any relationship of subordination concerning the choice of that activity, working conditions and conditions of remuneration;

 

under that person’s own responsibility; and

 

in return for remuneration paid to that person directly and in full.


 

Organisations

 

Europap: HIV STD prevention in sex work

TAMPEP (Amsterdam): European network for HIV/STI Prevention and Health Promotion among Migrant Sex Workers

European Overview of HIV and Sex Work 2007 (pdf) 

Sex Work in Europe 2009 (pdf)

Sex Work|Migration|Health 2009 (pdf)

 

AIDS Action Europe

 

Work Safe in Sex Work: A European Manual on Good Practices in work with and for Sex Workers. 2009 (pdf) 

 

ICRSE: International Committee on the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe

Sex Workers' Rights. European Conference, Brussels 2005 (pdf)

 

Correlation: European Network Social Inclusion and Health

 

La Strada International: European Network Against Trafficking in Human Beings

ENATW: European Network Against Trafficking in Women for sexual exploitation


European Union

European Commission

Brussels declaration on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings 2002 (pdf) 

Report of the Experts Group on Trafficking in Human Beings 2004

 

European Parliament

Summary of prostitution regulation in European States. 2004

Study on National Legislation on Prostitution and Trafficking 2005 (pdf)

 

Women's Rights and Gender Equality Committee (FEMM)

Draft report on the consequences of the sex industry in the European Union: 2004 (pdf)   

Oral Question on forced prostitution and sport. Tabled January 27 2006 (pdf)

Motion: February 1 2006

Red Card: Forced prostitution and sport March 8 2006

Article: March 8 2006

 

Prostitution and its health consequences March 21 2008

Oral question: Forced prostitution and trafficking in women. June 4 2008

Debate June 4


Council of Europe

Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings

Convention 2005

PACE: Prostitution - which stance to take? July 2007 (Platvoet report)

Assembly debate Oct 4 2007

 

European Women's Lobby 

Video: "Not for sale" 

Together for a Europe Free From Prostitution 


Research

Daniela Danna

Daniela Danna: The position of prostitutes in European countries. 2000

Daniela Danna: Organisations active in the field of prostitution in a comparative Western European Perspective. ECPR 2000 (pdf)

Daniela Danna. Cattivi Costumii: Le politiche sulla prostituzione nell'Unione Europea negli anni Novanta. Univ. Trento 2001 (pdf)

(Impure Morals: Policies on prostitution in the European Union in the Nineties)

Le politiche sulla prostituzione in Europa negli anni Novanta, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Sociologia e ricerca sociale presso l'Università degli studi di Trento, 2001 (zip)[2]    

Danna (ed.): Prostitution and public life in four European Capitals 2007 (pdf)[3] 

(Paris, Stockholm, Amsterdam, Madrid)

 

Kilvington, Day, Ward: Prostitution policy in Europe. Fem Rev 2001 (pdf)

(Sweden, Netherlands)

 

Susanne Dodillet

Susanne Dodillet: Cultural clash on prostitution - debates in Germany and Sweden in the 1990s. 2004 (pdf)[4]

Är sex arbete? Svensk och tysk prostitutionspolitik sedan 1970-talet (2009)

(Is sex work? Swedish and German prostitution policy since the 1970s)  

 

Pauline Vincenten. Realism versus Idealism:A historical institutionalist explanation. MA Thesis Leiden 2008 (pdf)

(Sweden, Netherlands)

 

Hubbard, Mathews, Scoular: Regulating the spaces of sex work - assessing the impact of prostitution law 2007

Regulating Sex Work in the EU: Prostitute Women and the New Spaces of Exclusion. Gender Place Culture 2008 (pdf)  

 

ESF: Exploring and comparing prostitution policy regimes in Europe. 2010 (programme)  

 


Migration and Trafficking

 

Andrew Cockayne: Is the EU response to trafficking appropriate to the realities. 2002 (Word)  

European Conference on Preventing and Combatting Trafficking 2002. Panel 2 Victim protection (pdf)

Musacchio: Migration connected with trafficking and prostitution. German Law Journal 2004

Daphne Project: Human rights and trafficking in women and young people - Austria, Italy, Poland. 2007

Meng-hsuan Chou. The EU and the fight against human trafficking: Comprehensive or contradicting? STAIR 2008 (pdf)

ICMDP: Legislation and the Situation Concerning Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation in EU Member States 2009 (pdf)   

 

Resources

Andrew Cockayne, University of Exeter

Sex work and sexual exploitation in the European Union 2002

Text (Word)

 

Cross-country Comparisons

Les maisons closes en Europe: Fondation Scelles

Selling sex legally in New Zealand. BBC March 17 2009

Europe and New Zealand poles apart. BBC March 18

Emma Dahlin. Prostitution in Germany and Sweden: What is right and what is wrong, 2008


Regions

Western Europe

Austria

 

Eingabe vom Sexworker-Forum an UNCAT/Submission from Sexworker-Forum to UNCAT[5] 2010 (pdf)

(English with German summary)

 


Belgium

 

Services

Payoke (Flemish, English)

Pasop (Flemish, English)

Gh@pro: Antwerp health services (Flemish, French, English)

 

Research

Catholic University Louvain

 

Stevens and Hooghe: Regulation of sexuality and intimacy in Belgium 1973-2003

 

Tina van Loon. Een moraalwetenschappelijke analyse van het Belgische prostitutiebeleid: 1830-2007. U Gent 2008 (pdf)  

 

Theses

Mak. Specific health services for sex workers. U Gent 2004 

 

Law

Summary of laws 2001 (pdf)

Penal Code - extracts (pdf)

 

Rezguia Adoui v. Belgium. European Court of Justice 1982

 

Media

Sex workers provide services to disabled. Telegraph Sept 29 2007

 


France

 

Law and policy

SOS Femmes The Legal Aspect

 

Les politiques publiqes et la prostitution. Delegation aux droits des femmes et l'egalite des chances. Senate 2000 (html, pdf)

English summary of Appendix 4 Comparison of European Countries ( SOS femmes accueil)

Germany, UK, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden)

 

Assemblée Nationale. Rapport D’information: Par La Commission Des Lois Constitutionnelles, De La Législation Et De L’administration Générale De La République, en conclusion des travaux d’une mission d’information sur la prostitution en France. April 13 2011 (pdf)   

 

 

 

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Chantal Brunel

Chantal Brunel MP: Tête de l’observatoire de la parité

 

Chantal Brunel meets with STRASS over LSI. February 17 2010

 

Media

Bring back the brothel, says female French MP. Guardian March 18 2010

Fermées il y a soixante ans, les maisons closes font encore débat. Le Parisien March 19

Manifestation à Paris pour réclamer des droits sociaux pour les prostituées. AFP March 24

Décriminalisez entièrement le travail du sexe. le Monde Dec 15   

 

A Lyon, le trottoir bat le pavé. Libération March 21 2011

Prostitution : Bachelot veut punir le client, L'indépendant March 31   

Des députés veulent punir les clients des prostituées. L'indépendant April 13

C'est une politique moraliste qui ne se soucie pas des travailleurs du sexe. Libération April 14

La pénalisation des clients, c'est le sens du progrès. Libération April 14   

 

Organisations

Les Putes

(inactive)

Travail du Sexe

STRASS (Syndicat du Travail Sexuel)

Griselidis (Toulouse)

Cabiria (Lyon)

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Sex workers in Lyon protest

Sex worker protest, Lyon

Médecins du monde 

 

 

Mouvement du nid

 

History

William Acton on Prostitution in France 1857 

 

Articles

Mathieu L. Women beyond the pale. Le Monde diplomatique Oct 2003 (abstract)

L Mathieu. L’abolitionnisme contemporain commet une double erreur. Alternative Libertaire 2010

 

Research

Gill Allwood. Sarkozy's Domestic Security Bill: a war on prostitutes not on prostitution? Modern and Contemporary France. 2003 (journal citation)

Lilian Mathieu. The Emergence and Uncertain Outcomes of Prostitutes' Social Movements. European Journal of Women's Studies February 1, 2003 vol. 10 no. 1 29-50

Lilian Mathieu. Prostituées et féministes en 1975 et 2002 : l'impossible reconduction d'une alliance. Travail, genre et sociétés 2/2003 (N° 10), p. 31-48.

Lilian Mathieu. The debate on prostitution in France: A conflict between abolitionism, regulation and prohibition. J Contemp Eur Stud 2004 (abstract)

Gill Allwood. Prostitution debates in France. Contemporary Politics 2004 (pdf)

(text)

 

Reports

Enquête de Médecins du Monde March 18 2011   


Books

Bernheimer C. Figures of Ill Repute: Representing Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century France. Duke University Press 1997

Excerpts

 

Corbin A. Women for Hire: Prostitution and Sexuality in France after 1850. Harvard 1996

 

Mathieu L. Mobilisations de prostituées. Belin, Paris 2001

Reviews

Politix 2002

Histoire, économie & société 2002

Clio 2003

Mobilization

 

Mathieu L. La Condition prostituée. Textuel 2007 

Reviews

Alternative Libertaire 2010

Prostitution et Société 2007

Le Monde 2007

Liens-Socio 2007   

Germany

 

Law

Grundgesetz: Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Constitution) 1949, 1990

Article 1 (Protection of human dignity).

1. The dignity of man is inviolable. To respect and protect it is the duty of all state authority.

Article 2 (Rights of liberty).

1. Everyone has the right to the free development of his personality insofar as he does not violate the rights of others or offend against the constitutional order or the moral code.

Article 12 (Right to choose an occupation, prohibition of forced).As amended March 19. 1956.

1. All Germans have the right freely to choose their trade or profession their place of work and their place of training. The practice of trades and professions may be regulated by law.

 

Das prostitutiongesetz ProstG (Prostitution Act) 2001

(Gesetz zur Regelung der Rechtsverhältnisse der Prostitution)

 

Ministry of Families, Seniors, Women and Children: Evaluation of prostitution law January 2007 (Deutsch)

(BFSFJ: Bericht der Bundesregierung zu den Auswirkungen des Gesetzes zur Regelung der Rechtsverhältnisse der Prostituierten)

 

History

Julia Bruggemann: Prostitution, Sexuality, and Gender Roles in Imperial German Hamburg: A Case Study (abstract)

Julia Bruggemann: Prostitution, Sexuality, and Gender Roles in Imperial Germany:  Hamburg, A Case Study; in Genealogies of Identity, Interdisciplinary readings on sex and sexuality. Peters F (ed.) Rodopi, Amsterdam 2005

 

Research

Silke Ruth Laskowski: The German Prostitution Act: A more rational view of prostitution as a profession IJCLLIR 2002 (extended abstract)

Nitschke: Anonymous STD counselling versus mandatory checks for prostitutes. Gesundheitswesen 2006 (abstract)

Anna Bretzlaff: An examination of changing patterns of prostitution in Germany since unification MA Thesis Carleton 2008 

Margrit Brückner. Women in Prostitution and Social Responsibility. Social Work Society 2008  

 

Support, Advocacy and Information

Amnesty for Women

Hydra

Doña Carmen

Madonna

Freiersein

 

Forum - Deutsches Prostitutiongesetz

 

Media

Frau Doktor und die Huren. Hamburger Morgenpost Jan 21 1998

Exposing urban legends: German women will NOT lose benefits by declining sex work. February 2005[6]

Brothels take caring approach to sex and the senior citizen. Independent January 24 2011  

 

Official Statistics

PROSTITUTION: Bundeslagebild Kriminalität. Unternehmerverband Erotik Gewerbe Deutschland 2009[7]


Books

Laskowski SR. Die Ausübung der Prostitution: Ein verfassungsrechtlich geschützter Beruf im Sinne von Art. 12 Abs. 1 GG. Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt 1997

(The exercise of Prostitution: A constitutionally protected profession in the sense of Article 12 paragraph 1 GG)

          Review (pdf)

 

Sabine Grenz, Martin Lücke (Hg.) Verhandlungen im Zwielicht: Momente der Prostitution in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Transcript, Bielefeld 2006

(Negotiations in the twilight: Moments of prostitution in the past and present)

          Excerpts

 

Sabine Grenz. (Un)heimliche Lust Über den Konsum sexueller Dienstleistungen 2. Aufl. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2007

(Secret Desire: On the Consumption of Sexual Services)

          Excerpts

 

 


 

NetherlandsDescription: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Belle, Amsterdam (Holland)

 

POLICY

Government

Ministry of Foreign Affairs statement on prostitution 2005 (pdf)

 

Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment

(Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid (SZW)) 

Prostitution and exploitation 2010 (pdf)    

(Nederlands)

 

Wetsvoorstel Regulering prostitutie en bestrijding misstanden seksbranche[8]

(Bill Regulating prostitution and abuses in the sex industry Nov 2009)

Bill status

 

Ministry of Security and Justice: Documentation Centre 

 

Advocacy

De Wallenwinkel (Prostitute Information Centre)

 

De Rodedraad (The Red Thread)

 

Research

Boutellier: Prostitution, criminal law and morality in Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Wallen: Amsterdamthe Netherlands. Crime Law Soc Ch 1991 (pdf)

Sari van der Poel. Solidarity as boomerang: The fiasco of the prostitutes' rights movement in the Netherlands. Crime Law Soc Change 1995 (abstract)

Joyce Outshoorn: Debating prostitution in parliament. A feminist analysis. Eur J Wom Stud 2001 (abstract)

Roelof Haveman & Marjan Wijers. Sekswerk. Nemesis 2001 (pdf) 

Joyce Outshoorn. Pragmatism in the polder: Changing prostitution policy in the Netherlands. J Contemp Eur Stud 2004

Design against kerb-crawliing: Tippelzones - European experiences in displacement CPTED[9] 2004 (pdf)   

Wagenaar: Democracy and Prostitution. Administration & Society 2006 (abstract)

See also:

Kantola and Squires (2004)

 

(Above: Belle; Below: Wallen; Amsterdam)

 

Reports

Norwegian Justice Ministry (2004)

Netherlands Justice Ministry: Prostitution in the Netherlands. 2007 (pdf)

 

Dutch shadow report CEDAW 2009 (pdf)  

NGO's notes 5th Report of Netherlands for CEDAW Feb 2009 (pdf)  

 

Media

Dan Gardner: Coffee? Prayers? Sex? Ottawa Citizen February 23 2003

Dimming the red light: Amsterdam cuts window displays. Spiegel Sept 21 2007

 

Radio Netherlands

Prostitution Dossier   

Legalised prostitution: a dying trade. October 31 2006 

Pimping ban in Amsterdam? September 21 2007

Amsterdam's Red Lights: about to go out? January 21 2008    

Amsterdam wants no business deals with prostitutes. July 17 2008    

Tourists shun Amsterdam's sex district. April 10 2009  

FAQ - Prostitution in the Netherlands. September 18 2009 

Sex workers say 'no' to licensing law. December 2 2009

(Includes audiofile)

 

Books

Altink S. Huizen van illusies. Bordelen en prostitutie, van Middeleeuwen tot heden. LJ Veen, Utrecht 1983

 

Altink S. Handel in hartstocht - Het prostitutiebedrijf in Nederland. Walburg Pers, Zutphen 1995

 

Altink S, Groen M, Vanwesenbeeck I. Sekswerk. Ervaringen van vrouwen in de prostitutie. SUA, Amsterdam 1991

 

 

Switzerland

 

Aspasie (Genève)

Fleur de Pavé (Lausanne)

 

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description:Griselidis Real

Grisélidis Réal (1929-2005)

 


Northern Europe

 

Ireland

Organisations

SWAI: Sex Workers Alliance Ireland

Chrysalis

 

Turn Off the Blue Light 

Poster Campaign

Ruhama

Turn Off the Red Light

 

Research

Drug Use, Sex Work and the Risk Environment in Dublin. NACD2009 

Kathryn McGarry : “Risking Work” The Social Context of Risk Behaviour amongst Drug Using Sex Workers. 2009 (Power Point)

Kathryn McGarry: Risking Work and Working Risk: A Phenomenology of the Risk Environment of Prostitution in Ireland. PhD Thesis Trinity College 2009  

Kathryn McGarry Situating Gender and Sexuality in Irish Legal Discourse on Prostitution. ECPR 2009

Cusick, McGarry, Perry, Kilcommons. Drug services for sex workers — approaches in England and Ireland. Safer Communities 2010 (abstract)   

Whitaker et al. Stigmatization Among Drug-Using Sex Workers Accessing Support Services in Dublin. 2011 (abstract) 

 

Conferences

NACD 2009: Drug Use, Sex Work and the Risk Environment in Dublin. 2009

Press Release: Need To Improve The Conditions For Sex Workers To Reduce High Risk Environment: Harms concentrated in sex work conditions can be addressed by extending human rights to sex workers. June 18 (Word)

 

Media

 

2007

Students pay for tuition by sex work. Independent Sept 18 2007

Trafficked sex workers will no longer be deported. Post Dec 2 2007 

 

2009

Report shows sex workers exposed to shocking ‘violence’. Irish Examiner May 13 2009 

Call to decriminalise prostitution in Ireland. June 18 2009   

 

2011

Group in call over prostitution law. Belfast Telegraph Jan 3 2011 

Legalizing prostitution is the only fair solution for Ireland, elsewhere. Irish Central Jan 3 2011 

Targeting users proves successful. Irish Examiner Jan 5 

Calls to make buying sex a criminal offence. Irish Examiner Feb 3   

Writers back bid to prosecute men who pay for sex. Independent Feb 3  

Prominent Irishmen seek change to prostitution laws. Irish Times Feb 3 

Moralising prohibitions upon human appetites never work. Independent Feb 8   

Revealed: the life of a 'working girl' in Ireland today. Independent April 10  

Red-light alert. Independent April 10   

This emphasis on 'trafficking' feeds sex-slavery fantasy. Independent Aug 28 2011  

 


 

*United Kingdom

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.flags.net/images/smallflags/UNKG0001.GIF

 


 

*Scandinavia and Nordic Council Countries

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Viking ship

 


Baltic States

 

Prostitution - A social problem? Prostitution in the Baltic States. Estonian Women' Studies and Resource Centre 2004 (pdf)

 


Central and Eastern Europe

Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network: Sex Work, HIV/AIDS and Human Rights 2005 (pdf)

SWAN: Sex Workers' Rights Advocacy Network

 

Bulgaria

Political debate in Bulgaria. Sofia Echo Aug 13 2007

Bulgaria reconsiders its position. NY Times Oct 6 2007

Sofia Echo Oct 15 2007

 


Czech Republic

Timothy Hall: Men involved with sex with men for compensation in Prague. Sexualities Oct 2007 (abstract)

Prague crackdown on street market. Prague Daily Monitor Dec 5

 


Hungary

 

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Rebeka obtains business permit for sex work

Rebeka obtaining first business permit for sex work

 

Law and Order Act 1999 T/5364

 

MPEE (Magyarországi Prostituáltak Érdekvédelmi Egyesülete)

(Hungarian Prostitutes Protection Association)

Hungarian Civil Liberties Union and MPEE

 

Hungarian sex workers win new rights. August 2007

Sex workers included in economy. AP Sept 25 2007

 


Moldova

Kontula and Saaristo. Countering trafficking in Moldova. IOM 2009 (pdf)

 


Poland

Media

Poles claim 'prostitution'- for tax purposes. Warsaw Business Journal Feb 14 2011  

Research

Emil W. Pfywaczewski. The Phenomenon of Prostitution in Poland: Around the Problem of Legalization. In: Przemysław Piotrowski ed., Understanding problems of social pathology. Rodopi 2006

History

Moral Panic and the Prostitute in Partitioned Poland: Middle-Class Respectability in Defense of the Modern Nation. Keely Stauter-Halsted. Slavic Review 2009 (abstract)


Russia

Katherine P. Avgerinos: Normalisation of prostitution in Post-Soviet Russia. Vestnik 2006  

 


Ukraine

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Ukraine

Lena (SWAN)

 

Media

The nude radicals: feminism Ukrainian style. Guardian April 11 2011 


Southern Europe

Italy

 

Statute Law

Merlin Law 1958[10]

 

History

Mary Gibson: Prostitution and the State in Italy, 1860-1915. Rutgers University Press, New Jersey 1986

Review (p. 441)

 

Research

Francesco Carchedi: Foreign Prostitution in Italy. 2000 (pdf)[11]

Daniela Danna: Street prostitution and public policies in Milan. Sex Work and Public Health 2002 (pdf)

Daniela Danna. Donne di Mondo[12]. Arivista Anarchica 2004 

Daniela Danna. Italy - The never-ending debate, in Outshoorn J (ed.) The Politics of Prostitution 2004

Luca Trappolin: The globalization of prostitution in Italy. Dial Anthropol 2005 (abstract)

Campani et al: Mapping of policies affecting female migrants. Femipol 2006 (pdf)

Giovanna Campani: Gender and migration in Italy. Femipol 2007 (pdf)

Luisa Leonini: Il sex business nella società contemporanea. Prostituzione e tratta a 50 anni dalla legge Merlin. 2008 (pdf)

 

Media

Plans to abolish street work. Agence France Dec 21 2002

Italian Bill to criminalise streetwork. BBC Sept 12 2003

Proposals to allow small brothels. Christian Science Monitor February 6 2006

Italy considers criminalising clients. BBC Sept 25 2007

Dal film alla realtà: donne mature alla ricerca di sesso a pagamento. Corriere della Sera Oct 5 2008[13]

Torna la voglia delle case chiuse: Si allarga il fronte del "": all'estero il proibizionismo ha fallito. La Stampa Feb 13 2009

Non pagare la prostituta è uno stupro. Corriere della Sera, March 3 2010

 

Organisations

Comitato per i diritti civili delle prostitute

 


Macedonia

Macedonia Group Protects Rights of Sex Workers Through Video and Legal Advocacy. Open Society October1, 2009   

You Must Know About Me: Sex Worker Voices in Macedonia. Open Society March 24, 2010

A Legal Victory for Sex Workers in Macedonia. Open Society February 29 2012  

 

Organisations

STAR

 


Portugal

 

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: 1 de Maio em Lisboa

(Trabalhadoras do sexo, Lisboa, 1 de mayo 2009. Foto - Sérgio Vitorino)

 

Media

A prostituição é uma escolha. Jornal de Notícias 30 August 2009

Prostituição deve ser legal: Interview with Alexandra Oliveira (video)

 

History

Prostitution in Portugal: Legal Framework (pdf) 

 

Research

Silva, Machado, Silva: Law, Science and the Female Body: Prostitution as a boundary object. 2001 (pdf)

 

Migration

Padilla B. Integration of Brazilian immigrants in Portuguese Society: Problems and Possibilities. SOCIUS, Lisboa 2005  (pdf)

Catarino C. New Female Migrants in Portugal: A State of the Art. European Commission 2007 (pdf)

Madalena Duarte: “Tráfico de Mulheres em Portugal para fins de exploração sexual” 2008

ESA Abstract 2009

 


 

Books

Tovar de Lemos, A. Inquérito acerca da Prostitução e Doencas venéreas em Portugal, 1950. Editorial Imperio, Lisboa 1953.

             Review

Oliveira A. As vendedoras de ilusões : estudo sobre prostituição, alterne e striptease. Editorial Notícias Lisboa, 2004[14]

 

Spain

Organisations

APRAMP: Associacion para la Prevención, Reinserción y Atención de la Mujer Prostituida

IPSSE: Instituto para la Promoción de Servicios Especializados

Sicar

Hetaira

AMTTTSE (Asociación de Mujeres, Transexuales y Travestis como Trabajadoras Sexuales en España, Málaga)

CATS (Comité de Apoyo a las Trabajadoras del Sexo, Murcia)

CTSX (Comité de Trabajador@s del Sexo, Madrid)

 

Spain unable to to come to decision regarding law reform. Aug 29 2007

Spain targets traffickers with aid to prostitutes. December 19 2008

 

Research

Rosemary Barbaret: Victimología y Prostitución UCLM 1995 (pdf)

Celia Valente: The politics of prostitution. 2003 (pdf)

Celia Valente: La política de la prostitución. REIS 2004 (pdf)

Gemma Nicolás: Planteamientos feministas en torno al trabajo sexual 2005 (pdf)[15]

Rut González: Quality of life and interpersonal needs in prostitution. Sexologia Integral 2006 (pdf)

 

Calidad de vida y Necesidades Interpersonales de las mujeres que ejercen prostitución (pdf)

(Quality of life and interpersonal needs of women practicing prostitution)

Survey

 

History

J Guerena. Prostitution and the origins of the governmental regulatory system in nineteenth-century Spain: the plans of the trienio liberal, 1820-1823. Journal of the History of Sexuality 2008  

 

Media

Queremos trabajar sin molestar y sin ser molestadas" Diario de Alcalá 3 March 2011 

 

Blogosphere

Prostitución: Una visión (sub)-objetiva, compleja y global  


Western Asia

Turkey

Media

Prostitutes in south-east Turkey, Economist Jul 1 2004

Azerbaijani Prostitutes Flock to Turkey IWPR Feb 21 2005  

Turkey's Brothels Produce Two Election Candidates. Women's eNews July 15 2007 

Turkey's sex workers seek to establish a union. June 25 2009  

A look inside Istanbul's transsexual brothels. Global Post Oct 7 2010 

 

Organisations

IKGV (İnsan Kaynağını Geliştirme Vakfı) (Human Resource Development Foundation)

Seks işçiliği dosyasi (Sex Work Dossier)

Esin Küntay and Muhtar Çokar. Ticari Seks Medya Dosyasi (Commercial Sex) (pdf)  

 

Research

Bellerhann, I. Prostitution and its Effects in Northeast Turkey. European Journal of Womens Studies 2(2): 219-235, 1995 (abstract)

Screening of Sex Workers in Turkey for Chlamydia trachomatis, STD 1997 (abstract)  

 

Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in prostitutes in Turkey. Cent Eur J Public Health1996 (abstract)

 

Books

Pinhas Ben Nahum. Prostitution in Turkey. Kessinger 2010

 

Elif Özer. Kimse Duymaz: Türkiye'de İnsan Ticareti Mağdurları Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Ayizi, Ankara 2012.

(Nobody is listening: A study of human trafficking victims in Turkey)

 

Events

Seks İşçiliği ve İnsan Hakları Sempozyumu, 5-6 Mart tarihlerinde Ankara'da gerçekleşiyor.

(Sex Work and Human Rights Symposium, Ankara March 5-6 2011)

 

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Chantal Brunel

 


 

 

Main Menu

 

Site Map

 


Last updated: May 28, 2013

 

 

Dr Michael Goodyear, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada

For any problems, please contact: mgoodyear@dal.ca

 

 



[1]                           FI: Euroopan seksityön ja politiikan tutkimuksen keskus; IT: Centro europeo per la ricerca del sexwork e politica; NL: Europees Centrum voor Sekswerk Onderzoek en Beleid; NO: Europeisk senter for forskning i sexarbeid og politick; PT: Centro Europeu de Investigação do Trabalho Sexual e Política; SV: Europeiska centrumet för sexarbete forskning och politik; TR: Avrupa Seks Isciligi Arastirmalari ve Politikalari Merkezi

 

[5] United nations Committee Against Torture

[6]                   German sources

Jobben in der Grauzone. Jungle-World July 2003

English translation

 

                    Eine Job wieder jeder andere. Tageszeitung 2004 

                    English translation

 

[7] Datasources:

Polizeiliche Kriminalitätsstatistik (PKS) 2009

Ausbeutung von Prostituierten (Exploitation), Zuhälterei (Procuring).

Table 1 p 308: Gesamtzahl der ermittelten Tatverdächtigen

Bundeskriminalamt Menschenhandelsbericht (BKA) 2009 (Lagebild Menschenhandel)

2.1.2 Tatverdächtige (suspects) p7

Verurteilungen Statistisches Bundesamt (StBA) 2009 (Strafverfolgung, Fachserie 10 Reihe 3)

               2 Abgeurteilte und Verurteilte 2009 (Tried and convicted)

[8] Draft Bill circulated for consultation December 2008. Addresses raising minimum age from 18, licensing of premises and of workers, and criminalising clients patronizing unlicensed providers.

[9] Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.

[10] Law no. 75 of 1958 “Abolition of the regulation of prostitution and the fight against exploitation of the prostitution of others” ‘Legge Merlin’

Abolished decriminalization, and closed brothels. Prostitution remained legal, but solicitation was an offence, as was organization.

 

[11] Papers. Revista de sociologia, Departament de Sociologia. Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra. N. 60 (2000), Female Immigration in Southern Europe. p. 85-97  

See also: Carchedi, F., Mottura, G., Picciolini, A., Campani, G. I colori della notte: migrazioni, sfruttamento sessuale, esperienze di intervento sociale (The colours of the night: migration, sexual exploitation, experiences of welfare intervention), Franco Angeli, Milan 2000

[12] Costruzione sociale e realtà della prostituzione e del suo controllo statale

[15] Jornades Drets Socials i Dones en la Globalització: per una nova ciutadania. Barcelona